Best Practices for Podiatry Medical Billing and Coding

by | Published on Jun 27, 2023 | Medical Outsourcing, Specialty Billing

Podiatry Medical Billing and Coding
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In the current healthcare landscape, streamlined and successful billing processes are crucial for medical specialties like podiatry. However, podiatry medical billing and coding pose unique challenges due to the specialized nature of podiatry services and the intricacies involved in coding and billing for this field. Podiatrists concentrate on diagnosing, treating, and preventing foot, ankle, and lower extremity conditions, necessitating the adoption of effective podiatry medical billing practices to optimize their revenue cycle. Relying on a knowledgeable medical billing company is a practical strategy to maximize revenue and minimize claim denials in podiatry practices. Let’s dive into the common challenges in podiatry medical billing and coding and best practices to address them.

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Common Challenges in Podiatry Medical Billing and Coding

Here are some key factors that contribute to the complexity of podiatry billing and coding:

  • Specific coding requirements: Podiatry has its own set of specific coding requirements. Podiatrists diagnose and treat a wide range of foot and ankle conditions, including fractures, sprains, infections, deformities, sports injuries, diabetic foot complications, and more. They perform procedures and treatments that are different from other medical specialties, such as:
    • Bunionectomies, hammertoe corrections, Achilles tendon repairs, ankle arthroscopy, and joint fusions
    • Non-surgical treatments like orthotics, physical therapy, wound care, and pain management techniques
    • Assessment of the biomechanics of the lower extremities to identify abnormalities in foot structure or function that can cause plantar fasciitis, flat feet, or gait abnormalities
    • Management of foot complications related to diabetes
    • Foot and ankle sports injuries and their treatment
    • Coordinated care for foot and ankle conditions connected to systemic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis or vascular disorders
    • Preventive care to minimize the occurrence of foot problems, especially in the elderly and individuals with chronic conditions

Billing all these procedures and treatments correctly is essential to ensure compliance and accurate reimbursement.

  • Compliance with coding guidelines: Podiatry coders must adhere to coding guidelines set by organizations such as the American Medical Association (AMA) and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Staying up to date with coding guidelines and ensuring compliance can be challenging, especially with regular updates and changes.
  • Coders need to be familiar with the podiatry-specific CPT and ICD-10 codes for these conditions as well as modifier use. It is possible to use multiple modifiers with a single procedure code if necessary, although not all modifiers are applicable to every category of CPT codes. Certain modifiers are exclusive to specific categories, while others are incompatible with certain modifiers.

  • Insurance coverage and reimbursement: Podiatry practices primarily treat the elderly, which necessitates additional efforts in billing and coding, as this population is covered by Medicare. Private insurance companies and Medicare may have specific policies and guidelines for podiatry services. For example, routine foot care services are subject to national regulations, which provide definitions, indications, and limitations for Medicare payment of routine foot care services (https://www.cms.gov/medicare-coverage-database/view/article.aspx?articleId=56232). Understanding these policies, verifying coverage, and ensuring proper documentation to support medical necessity can be challenging. Reimbursement rates for podiatry services may also vary, and coders need to be knowledgeable about different insurance plans to optimize reimbursement.
  • Complex billing rules and regulations: Medical billing and coding are subject to numerous rules and regulations, including those related to coding guidelines, documentation requirements, claim submission, and reimbursement processes. Keeping up with these ever-changing rules and regulations requires ongoing education and training to avoid coding errors and billing denials.
  • Documentation challenges: Accurate and comprehensive documentation is crucial for proper coding and billing in podiatry. Podiatrists must provide detailed and specific documentation of patient encounters, procedures performed, diagnoses, and medical necessity. Incomplete or inadequate documentation can lead to claim denials, delays in reimbursement, and potential compliance issues. It is essential to document all relevant information, including the patient’s chief complaint, history of present illness, examination findings, treatment plan, and any other necessary details.
  • As many of the services provided by a podiatrist may not be reimbursable, the determination of medical necessity and validation of coverage is critical to getting reimbursed optimally. For example, to bill for nail debridement, it is essential to furnish supporting documentation that demonstrates the necessity of the debridement procedure.

  • Reimbursement denials and appeals: Due to the complexity of podiatry coding and billing, claim denials are not uncommon. Denials can occur due to coding errors, insufficient documentation, or insurance company policies. Resolving denials and navigating the appeals process can be time-consuming and require knowledge of insurance policies and regulations.

Best Practices for Maximizing Podiatry Practice Reimbursement

Implementing best practices in podiatry billing is essential for the financial success of your practice. Here are 5 critical steps to ensure this:

  • Proper documentation and coding: First, ensure that the documentation accurately reflects the services provided. This includes documenting the chief complaint, history of present illness, examination findings, treatment plan, and any other relevant information. Detailed documentation helps establish medical necessity and supports the codes billed. EHR systems have helped streamline the documentation process and ensure consistency and accuracy.
  • Report the appropriate CPT codes: Next, make sure you familiar with the specific coding guidelines for podiatry services. Staying up-to-date with coding changes and guidelines is essential to ensure compliance and maximize reimbursement. Know the commonly used CPT codes for podiatry billing, such as:

11720-11721 – debridement or removal of nails – A single nail is debrided using the CPT code 11720, while several nails are debrided using the CPT code 11721. CPT code 11721 (Covered Nail Debridement 6 or more) requires a Q8 modifier (for routine check-up) with systemic conditions. This is medically necessary to be reimbursed by Medicare, but reimbursed only six times in a year.

11055-11057 – Surgical Procedures on the Skin, Subcutaneous and Accessory Structures. CPT codes 11055-11057 are used to document the trimming or removal of corns or calluses.

11750-11752 – Under surgical procedures on the nails. The provider removes part or all of a fingernail or toenail, including the nail plate and matrix and including the lunula if the excision is complete.

99202-99215 – Under this Office/Outpatient E/M Code range, each service includes “a medically appropriate history and/or examination,” and code selection is based on the MDM level or total time spent on that date.

20605 – Arthrocentesis, aspiration and/or injections.

28296-28299 – Surgical techniques for hammertoes or other toe abnormalities.

20550 – Injections for plantar fasciitis

28270– Surgical correction of a hammer toe deformity. It involves the release or lengthening of the tendon and other soft tissues to correct the misalignment of the toe. This procedure is typically performed to relieve pain or improve functionality in individuals with a hammer toe.

12001-12007– code set for laceration repair include simple repair to scalp, neck, axillae, external genitalia, trunk, and/or extremities (including hands and feet)

  • Apply modifiers Podiatry coding can be complex because multiple procedures are often performed on the same organ or structure, resulting in the use of numerous billing codes for reimbursement. Therefore, it is crucial to employ accurate modifiers to enhance collections and reduce errors. Q modifiers (Q7, Q8, and Q9) are utilized to denote class A (Q7), Class B (Q8), and Class C (Q9) findings. These modifiers may be used with procedure codes 11055, 11056, 11057, 11719, 11720, 11721, or G0127. When multiple surgeries are performed, it is important for the coder to indicate payable modifiers, such as the ten-digit toe modifiers (TA-T9) or the left or right modifiers (LT and RT), before the Q range of modifiers. The use of Q modifiers in claim submission reflects the specific findings related to the patient’s condition. However, it is the provider’s responsibility to document these findings in the patient’s record. Failure to provide supporting documentation for the use of Q modifiers on any claim may result in a denial for that claim.
  • Know prior authorizationrequirements: It is important for podiatrists and their staff to be familiar with the specific prior authorization requirements of different insurance plans to ensure timely approval and minimize potential reimbursement issues. While for 2023, most podiatry services (Medicare, Medicaid and commercial) will not require an authorization, the following services will require authorization (when they are rendered in an office setting) since they are not exclusively in the realm of podiatry:
  • -Certain injections for pain management
    -HBO therapy
    -Physical therapy

    If a podiatrist renders services in a hospital, ASC, home, or other POS, it would be advisable to verify if precertification is required.

  • Compliance considerations: Billing practices comply with federal and state regulations, as well as payer-specific guidelines. This includes proper documentation, accurate coding, and adherence to billing and coding rules. Non-compliance can lead to penalties, fines, and reputational damage. Conducting regular audits can help identify any potential compliance issues such as coding errors, documentation deficiencies, and other areas of non-compliance. It is necessary to address any issues promptly, implement corrective measures, and stay up-to-date on changes in billing regulations and guidelines to ensure ongoing compliance.

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Overcoming these challenges and implementing best practices to in podiatry billing is essential for the financial success of a podiatry practice. Strategies to consider include investing in ongoing training and education for coders, implementing effective documentation improvement programs, and leveraging technology and software solutions for coding and billing. Practices can also consider medical billing outsourcing to a company with expertise in the field of podiatry. Partnering with an expert can help practices optimize their billing operations, avoid denials, increase revenue, and pave the way for sustainable growth.

Julie Clements

Julie Clements, OSI’s Vice President of Operations, brings a diverse background in healthcare staffing and a robust six-year tenure as the Director of Sales and Marketing at a prestigious 4-star resort.

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